Communication for digital leadership: an exploration to the factors that contribute to low index

  • Nurhafizah Abdul Musid Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia.
  • Mohd Effendi@Ewan Mohd Matore Research Centre of Education Leadership and Policy, Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Aida Hanim A. Hamid Research Centre of Education Leadership and Policy, Faculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia


Digital leadership is important today because leadership development is a key element of sustainability education. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), leaders should deploy resources, be visionary and ethical, and focus on long-term goals without neglecting values and principles. There are nine elements to assess the digital leadership of teachers. One of the crucial elements in digital leadership of teachers is communication. However, previous studies show that communication has a low index in digital leadership compared to the other elements. Therefore, this study aims to explore the factors that contribute to a low index of communication in digital leadership. In this paper, a qualitative approach using a semi-structured interview is adopted. The interview protocol consists of basic information about the participants, guidelines for the participants, interview questions, and appreciation for the participants. The interviews were conducted thoroughly, although there was only one interview question. The interviews were conducted online via the Zoom application. The interview participants were selected by using purposive sampling that involved four teachers from primary and secondary schools in Perak, Selangor and Sabah. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed five factors: inefficient use of communication channels, inappropriate attitude of parents, lack of face-to-face communication, inappropriate teaching methods of teachers and limited internet access. The implications of this study point to the possibility of improving the use of communication channels in an efficient way, improving teaching methods so that students can understand what is being taught by teachers, and improving Internet access to increase the frequency of communication and diversify the methods of online communication between teachers and students. Stakeholders, administration and teachers should be more proactive in seeking solutions to overcome these challenges. It is suggested that a further study on communication in digital leadership be conducted, involving teachers from all states and using a quantitative approach and interviews among teachers in all types of Malaysian schools.

Keywords: Digital leadership, communication, interview, teachers, index


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Abdul Musid, N., Mohd Matore, M. E., & A. Hamid, A. H. (2024). Communication for digital leadership: an exploration to the factors that contribute to low index . Muallim Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 8(2), 46-58.